INDEPENDENCE OF TURKEY: JANUARY 20, 1921 A.D.
Shortly after the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, Bulgaria declared her independence, Austria annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina, Crete united with Greece, Balkan declared war and created Albania and Montenegro, Serbia and Romania enlarged their territories. 1911-12 war with Italy resulted in the loss of Tripolitania and the Dodecanese. The Allied troops landed in Istanbul on 13th November, 1918, and established a military administration. In 1919, the French had taken Ayntab, Mar'ash and Adana, Italians landed in Antalya, and the British in Samsun and Dardaneless. The Greeks landed in Izmir on 15 May and began to advance to annex Anatolia to a greater Greece.
Mustafa Kamal, an army inspector, landed in Samsun, northern Anatolia on 19 May to supervise the disarming of troops. But Kamal's actual goal was to organize national resistance to occupation. Istanbul became suspicious of his activities and terminated his appointment. He resigned in July 1919. Thus the movement of national liberation, against invader, began. The British in Istanbul arrested the nationalists and sent them to Malta. Kamal called for the election of an assembly in Ankara and the Grand National Assembly was opened by him on 23rd April, 1920. The Assembly began to levy troops and supplies. The treaty of Serves, signed on 10 August, 1920 reduced the Ottoman Empire to the Istanbul area and Northern Anatolia, and gave the remaining territories to the Allies. The major victory was won by liberators against the Armenians who evacuated Kars and signed teraty on 3 December, 1920. The Greeks were defeated in August, 1921, which earned Kamal the title of Ghazi and Ataturk. The French advance was checked in 1920 and a treaty signed in 1921. Italians left Anatolia. The Grand National Assembly assured the control of government and gradually extended its authority in the country.